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The Principle Of The Battery
Feb 28, 2018

In chemical batteries, the direct conversion of energy into electric energy is the result of spontaneous oxidation and reduction in the battery, which is carried out on two electrodes respectively. Negative active substances are composed of reductant with negative potential and stable in electrolyte, such as active metals such as zinc, cadmium, lead, and hydrogen or hydrocarbons. Positive active substances are composed of oxidizing agents which are more positive and stable in electrolyte, such as manganese dioxide, lead dioxide, nickel oxide, oxygen or air, halogen and its salts, and oxygen-containing acids and salts. Electrolyte is a material with good ionic conductivity, such as acid, alkali, salt aqueous solution, organic or inorganic non aqueous solution, molten salt or solid electrolyte, etc.

When the outside circuit is disconnected, although there is a potential difference between the two poles (open circuit voltage), but there is no current, the chemical energy stored in the battery does not convert to electrical energy. When the outer circuit is closed, the current flows through the external circuit under the action of two electrode potential difference. At the same time, due to the absence of free electrons in the electrolyte, the transfer of charge must be accompanied by the oxidation or reduction of the polar active substance and electrolyte interface, as well as the substance migration of reactants and reaction products. The transfer of charge in the electrolyte is also accomplished by the migration of ions. Therefore, the normal electrical charge transfer and material transfer process are necessary to ensure the normal output power. When charging, the direction of the electricity and mass transfer in the battery is opposite to the discharge, and the electrode reaction must be reversible in order to ensure the normal process of the trans-directional mass transfer and the electricity. Therefore, the reversible electrode reaction is the necessary condition for the formation of the battery. G is the Gibbs reaction free energy increment (focal), F is Faraday constant =96500 library =26.8 Ann Shi, n is the equivalent number of the battery reaction. This is the basic thermodynamic relationship between the battery electromotive force and the battery reaction, and is also the basic thermodynamic equation for calculating the energy conversion efficiency of the battery. In fact, when the current flows through the electrodes, the electrode potential deviates from the thermodynamic equilibrium of the electrode potential, a phenomenon called polarization. The greater the current density (the current on the unit electrode area), the more severe the polarization. Polarization phenomenon is one of the important reasons for the loss of battery energy. There are three reasons for polarization: The polarization caused by the resistance of each part of the battery is called ohmic polarization, and the polarization caused by the of the charge transfer process in the electrode-electrolyte interface layer is called the activation polarization, and the polarization caused by the delay of the mass transfer process in the electrode-electrolyte interface layer is called the concentration polarization. The method of reducing polarization is to increase the electrode reaction area, reduce the current density, increase the reaction temperature and improve the catalytic activity of the electrode surface.